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range voting

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\title{Range voting}
\author{Warren D. Smith}

%A short introduction to range voting.


\emph{Range voting}
is a single-winner voting system in which each vote consists of one numerical score 
from 0 to U awarded to each candidate,
where U is some positive number. 
In \emph{single-digit range voting} U is 9, 
while \emph{two-digit range voting} has U=99.
(One could also consider permitting the interval to be, e.g. $[-10, 10]$.)
The candidate with the highest average score wins. 
In a common variant, ``X'' scores also are permitted for candidates 
(meaning:``I wish to express no opinion about this candidate''). 
For example  (46,0,32,99)  could be one vote in a 4-candidate two-digit range voting
election; advise 99/0 for best/worst.

{\bf Approval voting} \cite{BramsFAV} is the degenerate form of range voting in which
there are only two allowed scores:  0 and 1.


S.J. Brams \& P. Fishburn:  Approval voting, Birkhauser 1983.