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Hometerms from foreign languages used in mathematics (page images version)

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# terms from foreign languages used in mathematics (page images version)

This entry is best viewed in page images mode. For the html version, click here.

Following are terms from foreign languages that appear in mathematical literature. Each chart (TeX object tabular) contains terms from the foreign language indicated. The foreign languages are ordered according to how many terms appear in its corresponding chart. In each chart, the terms are listed in alphabetical order.

# 1 Latin

abbr. | term | literal translation | mathematical usage |

a fortiori | with stronger reason | used in logic to denote an | |

argument to the effect that | |||

because one ascertained fact exists; | |||

therefore another which is | |||

included in it or analogous to is | |||

and is less improbable, unusual, | |||

or surprising must also exist | |||

a priori | from the former | already known/assumed | |

ad absurdum | to absurdity | an assumption is made in hopes of | |

obtaining a contradiction | |||

[reductio ad absurdum is also used] | |||

ad infinitum | to infinity | endlessly, infinitely | |

casus irreducibilis | not-reducible case | roots real but not | |

expressible via real radicals | |||

cf. | confer | compare | used to suggest that another |

work might also be consulted | |||

in relation to that argument | |||

et al. | et alii | and others | used in multi-author references |

but it is customary to include | |||

all the authors in the first | |||

citation and/or in the | |||

bibliography | |||

e.g. | exempli gratia | for example’s sake | for example |

ibid. | ibidem | in the same place | relates to the |

immediately prior source | |||

i.e. | id est | that is | that is |

inf | inferior, infimum | lowest | limit inferior; greatest lower bound |

inter alia | among other things | among other things | |

loc. cit. | loco citato | in the place already mentioned | relates to sources before the |

immediately prior citation | |||

[probably less frequent | |||

than op. cit.] | |||

lb | logarithmus binaris | binary logarithm | log. in base 2 |

lg | logarithmus generalis | general logarithm | log. in base 10 |

ln | logarithmus naturalis | natural logarithm | log. in base $e$ |

mutatis mutandis | once changing thing to be changed | repeat the similar argument | |

for the related case | |||

N.B. | nota bene | note well | the following is important |

op. cit. | opere citato | in the work already mentioned | relates to sources before the |

immediately prior citation | |||

[probably more frequent | |||

than loc. cit.] | |||

QED | quod erat demonstrandum | which was to be demonstrated | end of proof |

QEF | quod erat faciendum | which was to be done | end of construction |

regula falsi | rule of false position | Newton’s method | |

sine qua non | without which it could not be | an essential condition | |

or element; an indispensable thing | |||

sup | superior, supremum | uppermost | limit superior, least upper bound |

viz | videlicet | that is to say, namely | a keynote abbreviation |

# 2 German

abbr. | term | literal translation | mathematical usage |

Ansatz | approach, attempt | assumed form for an expression | |

eigen | characteristic, typical | eigenvalue; eigenvector | |

Grösse, Größe | size, magnitude | Grössencharacter | |

im kleinen | in the small | connected im kleinen | |

Nullstellensatz | zero point theorem | zero point theorem | |

Stufe | stair, level | stufe of a field | |

Urelement | primeval element | set element which is not a set | |

$V$, $K_{4}$ | Vierergruppe | four-group | Klein 4-group |

$\mathbb{Z}$ | Zahlen | numbers | integers |

$Z$ | Zentrum | center | center (of a group) |

# 3 French

abbr. | term | literal translation | mathematical usage |
---|---|---|---|

espace | space | (topological) space [see Espace Étalé] | |

étale | slack | étale fundamental group; étale morphism; étale site | |

étalé | spread out, displayed | Étalé space | |

p.p. | presque partout | almost everywhere | almost everywhere |

# 4 Russian

abbr. | term | literal translation | mathematical usage |
---|---|---|---|

$\partial$ | italic ‘‘д’’ [may be pronounced ‘‘doh’’] | letter ‘‘d’’ | e.g. in $\displaystyle{\frac{\partial f}{\partial x}}$ [see partial derivative] |

Related:

TermsFromForeignLanguagesUsedInMathematics, MathematicsVocabulary

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## Comments

## totally different entry

Once I started playing around with the "terminology used in foreign languages" entry to make it more readable in page images mode, I found that trying to edit it in this matter made the html mode viewing look worse. Thus, I decided to create a totally different entry. On my end, there are still things wrong with it. (For instance, after "sine qua non", I cannot see any of the rest of the Latin chart; the German chart begins.) I have made this object world-editable so that yark and other "pages images people" can edit this to make it look better. I hope that this helps make everyone happy.

Warren

## problems

When I view this entry in page images mode, the Latin chart is cut off somewhere around "sine qua non". Is this true for other people also? Does someone know how to fix this?

Warren

## Re: problems

Exactly the same for me. I think the flaw fixes it in time...